Edible Berries Ferns Flowers and Pollinator Groundcovers Native Trees
Alpine Strawberry - Fragaria vesca Edible Berries
A quick-growing ground cover that produces small thimble-sized berries that are sweet and bountiful. Flowers and fruit form throughout the spring and into the late fall. Heaviest yield is during the mid summer months. Grows best when grown in sunny location with dappled shade and well draining soil. Will tolerate shade and moist soil conditions but won't produce as much fruit. Plants generally stand erect which helps protect the fruit from ground dwelling insects. Also grows well in hanging baskets.
Height: 15cm (6in) Spread: Indefinite
WILD STRAWBERRY (Fragaria virginiana) Edible Berries
Winter hardy, these these plants are easily grown in fertile, moist to dry, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Prefers organically rich, sandy loam. This is a cool-season perennial that grows best in spring and fall. After setting fruit, plants may slow down or go dormant in hot summer months. Plants spread indefinitely by runners that root as they sprawl along the ground. Plants generally dislike high summer heat, humidity and strong drying winds. Propagate from runners.
Elderberry (Blue) - Sambucus cerulea Edible Berries (when cooked)
A beautiful, easy to maintain, fast growing shrub that produces creamy white flowers that are edible, followed by dark blue berries. The berries are great for jams and jellies or making my Grandma's famous elderberry wine. Always cook before consumption, fresh berries have a bitter taste and can cause nausea. Plant in acidic, well drained moist soil with plenty of organic material – produces best in the full sun but grows well in partial shade, although it doesn't produce as much. Easy to maintain in tree like form or shrub with pruning.
Height: 3-5m (10-16 ft) Spread: 1-2m (3-6ft)
Black Huckleberry - Vaccinium membranaceum Edible Berries
One of the tastiest and attractive of all the Native huckleberry varieties. Black huckleberry are acidic-loving plants that grow best in partial shade in lightly moist soils. The bush produces beautiful pink flowers that are followed by the dark black berries in mid to late summer. The foliage is as great as the berries taste . First Nations peoples used them fresh and dried and they were a staple in many Coastal groups’ diets.
Height: Up to 1m (3ft) Spread: 1m (3ft)
Oval-Leafed / Blue Huckleberry - Vaccinium ovalifolium Edible Berries
Also known as Native Blueberry. Grows best in full sun but also performs well in light shade. Requires acidic soil with plenty of organic material to help maintain moisture. Branches have beautiful winter colour. Great tasting berries.
Height: 1-2m (3-6ft) Spread: 1-2m (3-6 ft)
Red Huckleberry - Vaccinium parviflorum Edible Berries
One of the most popular of all the native berries. Like many, I have fond memories of picking them and eating them fresh or collecting them so my grandmother could make me huckleberry pancakes. They grow best in a filtered shade. The real key to their success is ensuring the soil is acidic with plenty of organic material to help maintain moisture. While the red huckleberry can tolerate some stress caused by drought, it perform best and rewards one with the heaviest crop if kept moist.
Height: 1-2m (3-6ft) Spread: 1-2m (3-6 ft)
* general height in urban environment, can grow taller in nature
Evergreen Huckleberry - Vaccinium ovatum Edible Berries
A great evergreen landscape plant that can be used to create a hedge border or add evergreen colour to areas through the garden. New growth has bronzish red foliage that becomes quite dramatic during the winter. Thrives in moist acidic soil and does best in partial shade but also does well in sunnier areas. Produces edible dark purple berries in fall. Can be easily pruned to maintain desired shape.
Height: 1-2m (3-6ft) Spread: Up to 1-1.5m (3-5ft)
Lingonberry - Vaccinium vitis-idaea Edible Berries
Low growing evergreen native ground cover that does best in full sun to partial shade in well draining moist soil with plenty of organic material. Produces small light pink to white bell shaped flowers followed by red berries that are quite tart with a slight sweetness. Berries are great in jams and juiced but home gardens generally only produce enough to wet one's palate.
Height: 15cm (6") Spread: 30cm+ (1ft+)
Salal - Gaultheria shallon Edible Berries
Hardy coastal evergreen. Grows in a variety of conditions from full sun to filtered shade. Tough foliage make it a great choice for low maintenance native plant gardens. Tolerates both dry and wet locations – it just needs pockets of acidic soil, rich in organic material. Growth is highly dependent on location – grows thick and lush in the under-story but can stretch up to 3m in deep shade. Forms beautiful white/pink flowers flowed by edible purple berries that were a staple of many local aboriginals. Great eaten fresh or preserved in jellies and jams. The leaves were chewed as a hunger suppressant. Common greenery in floral arrangements.
Height: varies 60cm to 3m Spread: 60cm (2 ft)
Salmonberry - Rubus spectabilis Edible Berries
Deciduous native shrub that produces beautiful pink flowers early in the spring. They produce plump colourful berries that range from purple to orange – best eaten fresh. Berries look like salmon roe hence their name. Grows in full sun to partial shade in moist well-draining soil but tolerates drier conditions once established. In urban settings it is best to be grown in contained areas or along alley ways.
Height: 1-2 m
Saskatoon berry / Serviceberry - Amelanchier alnifolia Edible Berries
Saskatoon berries are high in antioxidants and a favourite for many people. Edible purple berries are lightly sweet with a nutty flavour. Great for jams, jellies and pies. This shrubby bush produces clusters of beautiful white flowers in spring, berries in the summer and adds fall colour to the garden. Plants thrive in full sun to partial shade and tolerate most soil conditions other than hard clay but do best in well-drained, rocky and slightly alkaline soil.
Height: 2-3m (6-10 ft) Spread: 1-1.5 m (3-5ft)
Thimbleberry -Rubus parviflorus Edible Berries
Deciduous native shrub with large maple leaf leaves and white flowers. Produces distinct thimble shaped berries which are very seedy. Grows in full sun to partial shade in moist well-draining soil but tolerates drier conditions once established. Form thick dense underbrush and spread by rhizomes. In urban settings it is best to be grown in contained areas or along alley ways. Unlike many Rubs they are thornless.
Height: 1.5-2 m